Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Revenue Recognition

Revenue Recognition
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2018
Revenue from Contract with Customer [Abstract]  
Revenue Recognition Revenue Recognition
The Company has two operating segments for which it recognizes revenue; Clinical Services and Pharma Services. Our Clinical Services segment provides various clinical testing services to community-based pathology practices, hospital pathology labs and academic centers with reimbursement from various payers including client direct billing, commercial insurance, Medicare and other government payers, and patients. Our Pharma Services segment supports pharmaceutical firms in their drug development programs by providing testing services for clinical trials and research.
Clinical Services Revenue
The Company’s specialized diagnostic services are performed based on a written test requisition form or electronic equivalent. The performance obligation is satisfied and revenues are recognized once the diagnostic services have been performed and the results have been delivered to the ordering physician. These diagnostic services are billed to various payers, including Medicare, commercial insurance companies, other directly billed healthcare institutions such as hospitals and clinics, and individuals. Revenue is recorded for all payers based on the amount expected to be collected, which considers implicit price concessions. Implicit price concessions represent differences between amounts billed and the estimated consideration the Company expects to receive based on negotiated discounts, historical collection experience and other anticipated adjustments, including anticipated payer denials. Collection of consideration the Company expects to receive typically occurs within 30 to 60 days of billing for commercial insurance, Medicare and other governmental and self-pay payers and within 60 to 90 days of billing for client payers.
Pharma Services Revenue
The Company’s Pharma Services segment generally enters into contracts with pharmaceutical and biotech customers as well as other Contract Research Organizations (“CROs”) to provide research and clinical trial services ranging in duration from one month to several years. The Company records revenue on a unit-of-service basis based on number of units completed and the total expected contract value. The total expected contract value is estimated based on historical experience of total contracted units compared to realized units as well as known factors on a specific contract-by-contract basis. Certain contracts include upfront fees, final settlement amounts or billing milestones that may not align with the completion of performance obligations.
The value of these upfront fees or final settlement amounts is usually recognized over time based on the number of units completed, which aligns with the progress of the Company towards fulfilling its obligations under the contract.
The Company also enters into other contracts, such as validation studies, for which the sole deliverable is a final report that is sent to sponsors at the completion of contracted activities. For these contracts, revenue is recognized at a point in time upon delivery of the final report to the sponsor. Any contracts that contain multiple performance obligations and include both units-of-service and point in time deliverables are accounted for as separate performance obligations and revenue is recognized as previously disclosed. The Company negotiates billing schedules and payment terms on a contract-by-contract basis. While the contract terms generally provide for payments based on a unit-of-service arrangement, the billing schedules, payment terms and related cash payments may not align with the performance of services and, as such, may not correspond to revenue recognized in any given period.
Amounts collected in advance of services being provided are deferred as contract liabilities on the balance sheet. The associated revenue is recognized and the contract liability is reduced as the contracted services are subsequently performed. Contract assets are established for revenue that has been recognized but not yet billed. These contract assets are reduced once the customer is invoiced and a corresponding account receivable is recorded. Additionally, certain costs to obtain contracts, primarily for sales commissions, are capitalized when incurred and are amortized over the term of the contract. Amounts capitalized for contracts with an initial contract term of twelve months or less are classified as current assets and all others are classified as non-current assets.
Most contracts are terminable by the customer, either immediately or according to advance notice terms specified within the contracts. All contracts require payment of fees to the Company for services rendered through the date of termination and may require payment for subsequent services necessary to conclude the study or close out the contract.

The following table summarizes the values of contract assets, capitalized commissions and contract liabilities as of December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017 (in thousands):

December 31, 2018 December 31, 2017
(as adjusted) 
Current pharma contract asset  $ 86  $ 541 
Long-term pharma contract asset  268  31 
Total pharma contract asset  $ 354  $ 572 
Current pharma capitalized commissions  $ 271  $ 371 
Long-term pharma capitalized commissions  650  171 
Total pharma capitalized commissions  $ 921  $ 542 
Current pharma contract liability  $ 927  $ 1,406 
Long-term pharma contract liability  1,652  283 
Total pharma contract liability  $ 2,579  $ 1,689 

There were no significant changes in the contract assets for the period ended December 31, 2018 as compared to the balances at December 31, 2017. Pharma contract liabilities increased $0.9 million, or 53%, from December 31, 2017 while capitalized commissions also increased by $0.4 million, or 70%. These increases are due to higher upfront fees driven by increases in the volume of Pharma contracts in process. Revenue recognized for the year ended December 31, 2018 related to Pharma contract liability balances outstanding at the beginning of the period was $1.6 million. Amortization of capitalized commissions for the year ended December 31, 2018 was $1.0 million.
There were no significant changes in the contract assets or contract liabilities for the period ended December 31, 2017 as compared to the balances at December 31, 2016. 

At December 31, 2018, we had signed contracts for approximately $65.0 million, substantially all of which contain cancellation provisions.  The Company applied the practical expedient and does not disclose information about remaining performance obligations that have original expected durations of one year or less. The unsatisfied existing performance obligations under long-term contracts as defined by ASC 606 differs from backlog in that it does not include wholly unperformed contracts where the promised consideration is variable and/or the application of other practical expedients.
Disaggregation of Revenue
The Company considered various factors for both its Clinical Services and Pharma Services segments in determining appropriate levels of homogeneous data for its disaggregation of revenue, including the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows. For Clinical Services, the categories identified align with our type of customer due to similarities of billing method, level of reimbursement and timing of cash receipts at this level. Unbilled amounts are accrued and allocated to payor categories based on historical experience. In future periods, actual billings by payor category may differ from accrued amounts. Pharma Services revenue was not further disaggregated as substantially all of our revenue relates to contracts with large pharmaceutical and biotech customers as well as other CROs for which the nature, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows is similar and primarily driven by individual contract terms.
The following table details the disaggregation of revenue for both the Clinical and Pharma Services Segments (in thousands):

December 31, 2018 December 31, 2017
(as adjusted) 
December 31, 2016
(as adjusted) 
Clinical Services: 
Client direct billing  $ 164,888  $ 147,726  $ 126,288 
Commercial Insurance  40,360  35,473  52,801 
Medicare and Medicaid  35,566  29,493  30,517 
Self-Pay  1,059  405  553 
Total Clinical Services  241,873  213,097  210,159 
Pharma Services:  34,868  27,154  21,649 
Total Revenue  $ 276,741  $ 240,251  $ 231,808