Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Revenue Recognition

v3.22.4
Revenue Recognition
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2022
Revenue from Contract with Customer [Abstract]  
Revenue Recognition Revenue Recognition
The Company’s two reportable segments for which it recognizes revenue are (1) Clinical Services and (2) Pharma Services. The Clinical Services segment provides various clinical testing services to community-based pathology practices, oncology practices, hospital pathology labs, reference labs, and academic centers with reimbursement from various payers including client direct billing, commercial insurance, Medicare and other government payers, and patients. The Pharma Services segment supports pharmaceutical firms in their drug development programs by providing testing services and data analytics for clinical trials and research.
Clinical Services Revenue
The Company’s specialized diagnostic services are performed based on a written test requisition form or an electronic equivalent. The performance obligation is satisfied and revenues are recognized once the diagnostic services have been performed and the results have been delivered to the ordering physician. These diagnostic services are billed to various payers, including client direct billing, commercial insurance, Medicare and other government payers, and patients. Revenue is recorded for all payers based on the amount expected to be collected, which considers implicit price concessions. Implicit price concessions represent differences between amounts billed and the estimated consideration the Company expects to receive based on negotiated discounts, historical collection experience, and other anticipated adjustments, including anticipated payer denials.
Pharma Services Revenue
The Company’s Pharma Services segment generally enters into contracts with pharmaceutical and biotech customers as well as other contract research organizations (“CROs”) to provide research and clinical trial services. Such services also include validation studies and assay development. The Company records revenue on a unit-of-service basis based on the number of units completed towards the satisfaction of a performance obligation. Certain contracts include upfront fees or billing milestones that are recognized over time, which aligns with the progress of the Company towards fulfilling its obligations under the contract.
Additional offerings within the Pharma Services portfolio includes Informatics, which involves the licensing of de-identified data to pharmaceutical and biotech customers in the form of either retrospective records or prospective deliveries of data. Informatics revenue is recognized at a point in time upon delivery of retrospective data or over time for prospective data feeds. The Company negotiates billing schedules and payment terms on a contract-by-contract basis, and contract terms generally provide for payments based on a unit-of-service arrangement.
Amounts collected in advance of services being provided are deferred as contract liabilities on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. The associated revenue is recognized and the contract liability is reduced as the contracted services are subsequently performed. Contract assets are established for revenue recognized but not yet billed. These contract assets are reduced once the customer is invoiced and a corresponding receivable is recorded. Additionally, Pharma Services incurs sales commissions in the process of obtaining contracts with customers. Sales commissions that are payable upon contract award are recognized as assets and amortized over the expected life of the customer relationship. For offerings with primarily short-term contracts, such as Informatics, the Company applies the practical expedient which allows costs to obtain a contract to be expensed when
incurred, if the amortization period of the assets that would otherwise have been recognized is one year or less. Contract assets and capitalized commissions are included in other current assets and other assets on the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Most contracts are terminable by the customers, either immediately or according to advance notice terms specified within the contracts. All contracts require payment of fees to the Company for services rendered through the date of termination and may require payment for subsequent services necessary to conclude the study or close out the contract.
The following table summarizes the values of contract assets, capitalized commissions, and contract liabilities for Pharma Services as of December 31, 2022 and 2021 (in thousands):
2022 2021
Current pharma contract assets(1)
$ 1,898  $ 1,738 
Long-term pharma contract assets(2)
31  236 
Total pharma contract assets $ 1,929  $ 1,974 
Current pharma capitalized commissions(1)
$ 800  $ 109 
Long-term pharma capitalized commissions(2)
715  882 
Total pharma capitalized commissions $ 1,515  $ 991 
Current pharma contract liabilities $ 7,557  $ 5,192 
Long-term pharma contract liabilities(3)
19  917 
Total pharma contract liabilities $ 7,576  $ 6,109 
(1) Recorded within other current assets on the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
(2) Recorded within other assets on the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
(3) Recorded within other long-term liabilities on the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Revenue recognized for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020, related to Pharma contract liabilities outstanding at the beginning of each year was $5.2 million, $4.4 million, and $2.3 million, respectively. Amortization of capitalized commissions for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020 were $0.9 million, $1.1 million and $0.8 million respectively.
Disaggregation of Revenue
The Company considered various factors for both its Clinical Services and Pharma Services segments in determining appropriate levels of homogeneous data for its disaggregation of revenue; including the nature, amount, timing, and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows. Clinical Services categories align with the types of customers due to similarities of billing method, level of reimbursement, and timing of cash receipts. Unbilled amounts are accrued and allocated to payer categories based on historical experience. In future periods actual billings by payer category may differ from accrued amounts. Pharma Services relate to contracts with large pharmaceutical and biotech customers as well as other CROs. Because the nature, timing, and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows are similar and primarily driven by individual contract terms Pharma Services revenue is not further disaggregated.
The following table details the disaggregation of net revenue for both the Clinical Services and Pharma Services Segments for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020 (in thousands):
2022 2021 2020
Clinical Services:
    Client direct billing $ 279,732  $ 252,617  $ 240,535 
    Commercial insurance 73,280  78,773  76,550 
    Medicare and other government 65,585  72,010  64,776 
    Self-pay 157  772  476 
Total Clinical Services 418,754  404,172  382,337 
Pharma Services 90,974  80,157  62,111 
Total net revenue $ 509,728  $ 484,329  $ 444,448