Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Revenue Recognition

Revenue Recognition
3 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2021
Revenue from Contract with Customer [Abstract]  
Revenue Recognition Revenue Recognition
The Company has two operating segments for which it recognizes revenue; Clinical Services and Pharma Services. The Clinical Services segment provides various clinical testing services to community-based pathology practices, oncology practices, hospital pathology labs, reference labs, and academic centers with reimbursement from various payers including client direct billing, commercial insurance, Medicare and other government payers, and patients. Due to the broad roll-out of the COVID-19 vaccine and a sharp decline in COVID-19 PCR testing demand, the Company made the decision at the end of the first quarter 2021 to exit from COVID-19 PCR testing which was part of Clinical Services segment revenues. The Pharma Services segment supports pharmaceutical firms in their drug development programs by providing testing services and data analytics for clinical trials and research.
Clinical Services Revenue

The Company’s specialized diagnostic services are performed based on a written test requisition form or electronic equivalent. The performance obligation is satisfied and revenues are recognized once the diagnostic services have been performed and the results have been delivered to the ordering physician. These diagnostic services are billed to various payers, including client direct billing, commercial insurance, Medicare and other government payers, and patients. Revenue is recorded for all payers based on the amount expected to be collected, which considers implicit price concessions. Implicit price concessions represent differences between amounts billed and the estimated consideration the Company expects to receive based on negotiated discounts, historical collection experience and other anticipated adjustments, including anticipated payer denials. Collection of consideration the Company expects to receive typically occurs within 30 to 60 days of billing for commercial insurance, Medicare and other governmental and self-pay payers and within 60 to 90 days of billing for client payers.

Pharma Services Revenue

The Company’s Pharma Services segment generally enters into contracts with pharmaceutical customers as well as other CROs to provide research and clinical trial services ranging in duration from one month to several years. The Company records revenue on a unit-of-service basis based on number of units completed and the total expected contract value. The total expected contract value is estimated based on historical experience of total contracted units compared to realized units as well as known factors on a specific contract-by-contract basis. Certain contracts include upfront fees, final settlement amounts or billing milestones that may not align with the completion of performance obligations. The value of these upfront fees or final settlement amounts is usually recognized over time based on the number of units completed, which aligns with the progress of the Company towards fulfilling its obligations under the contract.
The Company also enters into other contracts, such as validation studies and informatics. Revenue for validation studies for which the sole deliverable may be a final report that is sent to sponsors at the completion of contracted activities, is recognized at a point in time upon delivery of the final report to the sponsor. Informatics is the sale of de-identified data for which deliverables typically consist of retrospective records or prospective deliveries of data. Informatics revenue is recognized upon delivery of retrospective data or over time for prospective data feeds. Any contracts that contain multiple performance obligations and include both units-of-service and point in time deliverables are accounted for as separate performance obligations and revenue is recognized as previously disclosed. The Company negotiates billing schedules and payment terms on a contract-by-contract basis. While the contract terms generally provide for payments based on a unit-of-service arrangement, the billing schedules, payment terms and related cash payments may not align with the performance of services and, as such, may not correspond to revenue recognized in any given period.
Amounts collected in advance of services being provided are deferred as contract liabilities on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. The associated revenue is recognized and the contract liability is reduced as the contracted services are subsequently performed. Contract assets are established for revenue that has been recognized but not yet billed. These contract assets are reduced once the customer is invoiced and a corresponding receivable is recorded. Additionally, certain costs to obtain contracts, primarily for sales commissions, are capitalized when incurred and are amortized over the term of the contract. Amounts capitalized for contracts with an initial contract term of twelve months or less are classified as current assets. All others are classified as non-current assets.
Most contracts are terminable by the customer, either immediately or according to advance notice terms specified within the contracts. All contracts require payment of fees to the Company for services rendered through the date of termination and may require payment for subsequent services necessary to conclude the study or close out the contract.
The following table summarizes the values of contract assets, capitalized commissions and contract liabilities (in thousands):
March 31, 2021 December 31, 2020
Current pharma contract assets (1)
$ 2,014  $ 1,643 
Long-term pharma contract assets (2)
355  290 
Total pharma contract assets $ 2,369  $ 1,933 
Current pharma capitalized commissions (1)
$ 182  $ 185 
Long-term pharma capitalized commissions (2)
1,020  970 
Total pharma capitalized commissions $ 1,202  $ 1,155 
Current pharma contract liabilities $ 3,992  $ 4,029 
Long-term pharma contract liabilities (3)
705  712 
Total pharma contract liabilities $ 4,697  $ 4,741 
(1) Current pharma contract assets and Current pharma capitalized commissions are classified as other current assets on the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
(2) Long-term pharma contract assets and Long-term pharma capitalized commissions are classified as other assets on the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
(3) Long-term pharma contract liabilities are classified as other long-term liabilities on the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Pharma contract assets increased $0.4 million, or 23%, from December 31, 2020 to March 31, 2021. Pharma contract liabilities and capitalized commissions remained flat during the same period. Revenue recognized for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and March 31, 2020 related to Pharma contract liability balances outstanding at the beginning of the period was $2.7 million and $1.2 million, respectively. Amortization of capitalized commissions for the three-months ended March 31, 2021 and March 31, 2020, was $0.2 million and $0.2 million, respectively.
Disaggregation of Revenue
The Company considered various factors for both its Clinical Services and Pharma Services segments in determining appropriate levels of homogeneous data for its disaggregation of revenue, including the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows. For Clinical Services, the categories identified align with the type of customer due to similarities of billing method, level of reimbursement and timing of cash receipts. Unbilled amounts are accrued and allocated to payer categories based on historical experience. In future periods, actual billings by payer category may differ from accrued amounts. Pharma Services revenue was not further disaggregated as substantially all of the revenue relates to contracts with large pharmaceutical and biotech customers as well as other CROs for which the nature, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows is similar and primarily driven by individual contract terms.
The following table details the disaggregation of revenue for both the Clinical and Pharma Services Segments (in thousands):
Three Months Ended March 31,
2021 2020
Clinical Services:
    Client direct billing $ 60,709  $ 54,292 
    Commercial Insurance 18,574  21,993 
    Medicare and Medicaid 17,150  16,483 
    Self-Pay 54  214 
Total Clinical Services $ 96,487  $ 92,982 
Pharma Services: 19,046  13,048 
Total Revenue $ 115,533  $ 106,030