Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)

v3.21.2
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2021
Accounting Changes and Error Corrections [Abstract]  
Basis of Presentation
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying interim Consolidated Financial Statements are unaudited and have been prepared in accordance with GAAP for interim financial information. All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in the accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements.
The accounting policies of the Company are the same as those set forth in Note 2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, to the audited Consolidated Financial Statements contained in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, except for Business Combinations, Assets Held for Sale, Stock-Based Compensation, Income Taxes and the impact of the adoption of new accounting standards discussed under Recently Adopted Accounting Guidance.
Use of Estimates
Use of Estimates
The Company prepares its Consolidated Financial Statements in conformity with GAAP. These principles require management to make estimates, judgments and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, together with amounts disclosed in the related notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements. Actual results and outcomes may differ from management’s estimates, judgments and assumptions. Significant estimates, judgments and assumptions used in these Consolidated Financial Statements include, but are not limited, to those related to revenues, accounts receivable and related allowances, contingencies, useful lives and recovery of long-term assets and intangible assets, income taxes and valuation allowances, stock-based compensation, business combinations, and impairment analysis of goodwill. These estimates, judgments, and assumptions are reviewed periodically and the effects of material revisions in estimates are reflected on the Consolidated Financial Statements prospectively from the date of the change in estimate.
Business Combinations
Business Combinations
The Company accounts for acquisitions of entities that include inputs and processes and have the ability to create outputs as business combinations. The tangible and identifiable intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination are recorded based on their estimated fair values as of the business combination date, including identifiable intangible assets which either arise from a contractual or legal right or are separable from goodwill. The Company bases the estimated fair value of identifiable intangible assets acquired in a business combination on independent third-party valuations that use information and assumptions provided by its management, which consider estimates of inputs and assumptions that a market participant would use. Any excess purchase price over the estimated fair value assigned to the net tangible and identifiable intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed is recorded to goodwill. The use of alternative valuation assumptions, including estimated revenue projections, growth rates, estimated cost savings, cash flows, discount rates, estimated useful lives and probabilities surrounding the achievement of contingent milestones could result in different purchase price allocations and amortization expense in current and future periods. Transaction costs associated with acquisitions are expensed as incurred in general and administrative expenses. Results of operations and cash flows of acquired companies are included in the Company’s operating results from the date of acquisition.
Assets Held for Sale
Assets Held for Sale
Assets to be disposed of by sale are reclassified as held for sale if their carrying amounts are expected to be recovered through a sale transaction rather than through continuing use and when the Company commits to a plan to sell the assets. Assets classified as held for sale are measured at the lower of their carrying value or fair value less cost to sell. Such assets are classified within current assets if there is reasonable certainty that the sale and collection of consideration will take place within one year. Upon reclassification as held for sale, long-lived assets are no longer depreciated or amortized, and a measurement for impairment is performed to determine if there is an excess of carrying value over fair value less costs to sell. Any remeasurement is reported
as an adjustment to the carrying value of the assets. Subsequent changes to estimated fair value less the cost to sell will impact the measurement of assets held for sale if the fair value is determined to be less than the carrying value of the assets.
Stock-Based Compensation
Stock-Based Compensation
The Company measures compensation expense for stock-based awards to employees, non-employee contracted physicians, and directors based upon the awards’ initial grant-date fair value. The estimated grant-date fair value of the award is recognized as expense over the requisite service period using the straight-line method.
Prior to 2021, the Company estimated the fair value of stock options using a trinomial lattice model. On January 1, 2021, the Company began applying the Black-Scholes option valuation model (“Black-Scholes”) on a prospective basis to new awards. The Company expects the use of Black-Scholes to provide a more ubiquitous estimate of fair value. Like the prior trinomial lattice model, Black-Scholes is affected by the stock price on the date of the grant as well as assumptions regarding a number of highly complex and subjective variables. These variables include the expected term of the option, expected risk-free interest rate, the expected volatility of common stock, and expected dividend yield, each of which is more fully described below. The assumptions for expected term and expected volatility are the two assumptions that significantly affect the grant date fair value.
Expected Term: The expected term of an option is the period of time that the option is expected to be outstanding. The average expected term is determined using the Black-Scholes model.
Risk-free Interest Rate: The risk-free interest rate used in the Black-Scholes model is based on the implied yield at the grant date of the U.S. Treasury zero-coupon issue with an equivalent term to the stock-based award being valued. Where the expected term of a stock-based award does not correspond with the term for which a zero coupon interest rate is quoted, the Company uses the nearest interest rate from the available maturities.
Expected Stock Price Volatility: The Company uses its own historical weekly volatility because that is more reflective of market conditions.
Dividend Yield: Because the Company has never paid a dividend and does not expect to begin doing so in the foreseeable future, the Company assumed no dividend yield in valuing the stock-based awards.
The Company measures the fair value of its performance-based stock awards issued to employees based on the closing market price of the common stock on the trading date immediately preceding the grant date. Compensation expense for stock units with performance metrics is calculated based upon expected achievement of the metrics specified in the grant. Any expense is recognized in the Company’s Consolidated Statement of Operations on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period.
Income Taxes
Income Taxes
Deferred taxes are recognized for the tax consequences of temporary differences by applying enacted statutory rates applicable to future years to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts and the tax bases of existing assets and liabilities. Also, the effect on deferred taxes of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that included the enactment date. Temporary differences between financial and tax reporting arise primarily from the use of different depreciation and amortization methods and lives for property and equipment and recently acquired Inivata developed technology intangible assets, recognition of accounts receivable, compensation related expenses, and various other expenses that have been allowed for or accrued for financial statement purposes but are not currently deductible for income tax purposes.
The provision for income taxes, including the effective tax rate and analysis of potential tax exposure items, if any, requires significant judgment and expertise in federal and state income tax laws, regulations and strategies, including the determination of deferred tax assets and liabilities and any estimated valuation allowances deemed necessary to recognize deferred tax assets at an amount that is more likely than not to be realized.
Management assesses the recoverability of its deferred tax assets as of the end of each quarter, weighing available positive and negative evidence, and is required to establish and maintain a valuation allowance for these assets if it is more likely than not that some or all of the deferred income tax assets will not be realized. The weight given to the evidence is commensurate with the extent to which the evidence can be objectively verified. If negative evidence exists, positive evidence is necessary to support a conclusion that a valuation allowance is not needed.
As of December 31, 2020, expected future reversals of the Company’s deferred income tax liabilities provided objectively verifiable positive evidence to support the recoverability of its deferred tax assets. However, on January 1, 2021, the Company
adopted ASU No. 2020-06, Debt - Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging - Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40) - Accounting For Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity (“ASU 2020-06”) using the modified retrospective approach, which resulted in a decrease of approximately $6.6 million in the Company’s deferred income tax liabilities. In addition, approximately $2 million of valuation allowance against the Company’s deferred income tax assets was established upon adoption of ASU 2020-06, resulting from the decrease in deferred income tax liabilities available to support the recoverability of deferred tax assets. The valuation allowance represents the portion of the Company’s U.S. deferred income tax assets that are not more likely than not to be realized in future periods, primarily related to Federal and California research and development tax credit carryforwards.
A cumulative loss in recent years is a significant piece of negative evidence that is difficult to overcome. Cumulative loss in recent years is commonly defined as a three-year cumulative loss position. As of September 30, 2021, the Company’s U.S. ongoing operations were in a three-year cumulative loss position. Management determined that sufficient objectively verifiable positive evidence did not exist to overcome the negative evidence of the Company’s U.S. cumulative loss position. Accordingly, the Company’s estimated annual effective tax rate applied to the Company’s pre-tax (loss) income for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021, respectively, included the unfavorable impact of valuation allowance expected to be established against the Company’s deferred income tax assets expected to be created in 2021 for additional U.S. net operating loss and tax credit carryforwards.
As of September 30, 2021, the Company’s total valuation allowance against U.S. deferred income tax assets is forecasted to be approximately $18 million including deferred income tax assets from the acquisitions of Intervention Insights, Inc., d/b/a Trapelo Health, and the U.S. subsidiary of Inivata Limited, a private limited company incorporated in England and Wales. For further details regarding the acquisitions of Trapelo Health and Inivata Limited, please refer to Note 3. Acquisitions. The Company also continued to maintain a full valuation allowance against deferred tax assets in Switzerland, Singapore and China, which increased from $2.6 million as of December 31, 2020 to $3.8 million as of September 30, 2021. No valuation allowance was determined to be required for deferred income tax assets from the acquisition of Inivata Limited, the British entity.
The Company evaluates tax positions that have been taken or are expected to be taken in its tax returns, and records a liability for uncertain tax positions, if deemed necessary. The Company follows a two-step approach to recognizing and measuring uncertain tax positions. First, tax positions are recognized if the weight of available evidence indicates that it is more likely than not that the position will be sustained upon examination, including resolution of related appeals or litigation processes, if any. Second, the tax position is measured as the largest amount of tax benefit that has a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon settlement.
The Company recognizes interest and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits in the provision for income taxes in the accompanying Consolidated Balance Sheets. At September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020 the Company had an uncertain tax position related to Federal and State R&D tax credit carryforwards. No interest and penalties have been accrued, as the income tax credits are carried forward to offset income tax liabilities in future years.
Recently Adopted Accounting Guidance and Accounting Pronouncements Pending Adoption
Recently Adopted Accounting Guidance
In August 2021, the FASB issued ASU No. 2021-06, Presentation of Financial Statements (Topic 205), Financial Services-Depository and Lending (Topic 942), and Financial Services-Investment Companies (Topic 946) (“ASU 2021-06”), Amendments to SEC Paragraphs Pursuant to SEC Final Rule Releases No. 33-10786, Amendments to Financial Disclosures About Acquired and Disposed Businesses, and No.33-10835, Update of Statistical Disclosures for Bank and Savings and Loan Registrants. This update amends certain SEC disclosure guidance that is included in the accounting standards codification to reflect the SEC’s recent issuance of rules intended to modernize and streamline disclosure requirements. The Company adopted this pronouncement upon issuance and the impact of the provisions of this standard on its Consolidated Financial Statements was immaterial.
In October 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-10, Codification Improvements, which updates various codification topics by clarifying disclosure requirements to align with the SECs regulations. The Company adopted this pronouncement on January 1, 2021 and the impact of the provisions of this standard on its Consolidated Financial Statements was immaterial.
In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-06, Debt - Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging - Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40) - Accounting For Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity (“ASU 2020-06”) which simplifies the accounting for certain financial instruments with characteristics of liabilities and equity, including convertible instruments and contracts in an entitys own equity. Among other changes, ASU 2020-06 simplifies the accounting for convertible instruments by removing the liability and equity separation model for convertible instruments with a cash conversion feature, and as a result, after adoption, entities will no longer separately present in equity an embedded conversion feature for such convertible debt instruments. Similarly, the debt discount, that is equal to the carrying value of the embedded conversion feature upon issuance, will no longer be amortized into income as interest expense over the life of the instrument. Instead, entities will account for a convertible debt instrument wholly as debt unless (1) a convertible instrument contains features that require bifurcation as a derivative under ASC Topic 815, Derivatives
and Hedging, or (2) a convertible instrument was issued at a substantial premium. In addition, ASU 2020-06 requires the application of the if-converted method for calculating the impact of convertible instruments on diluted earnings per share. ASU 2020-06 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021, with early adoption permitted no earlier than fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020. ASU 2020-06 can be adopted on either a fully retrospective or modified retrospective basis.
The Company adopted ASU 2020-06 on January 1, 2021 using the modified retrospective approach, and accordingly the Company recorded an adjustment that reflects the 1.25% Convertible Senior Notes due 2025 as if the embedded conversion feature had not been separated. The impact upon adoption on the Consolidated Balance Sheets included an increase of approximately $27.2 million in convertible senior notes, net, a write-off of approximately $6.6 million in deferred income tax liabilities, establishment of approximately $2 million of valuation allowance against deferred income tax assets, and a decrease of approximately $23.3 million in additional paid-in capital. In addition, upon adoption, there was an adjustment to increase the beginning balance of retained earnings on the Consolidated Balance Sheets for previously recognized interest expense, net of tax effects, of approximately $2.7 million for amortization of debt discount related to the carrying value of the embedded conversion feature upon issuance, as well as a decrease to the beginning balance of retained earnings of approximately $2 million for the establishment of valuation allowance against the Company’s deferred income tax assets. There was no impact to the Companys earnings per share calculation. For further information regarding the 1.25% Convertible Senior Notes due 2025, please refer to Note 8. Debt.
Accounting Pronouncements Pending Adoption
In October 2021, the FASB issued ASU No. 2021-08, Business Combinations (Topic 805), Accounting for Contract Assets and Contract Liabilities from Contracts with Customers (ASU 2021-08”). This update amends guidance to require that an entity (acquirer) recognize and measure contract assets and contract liabilities acquired in a business combination in accordance with Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606). At the acquisition date, an acquirer should account for the related revenue contracts in accordance with Topic 606 as if it had originated the contracts. ASU 2021-08 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption of the amendments is permitted including adoption in an interim period. If the Company early adopts in an interim period, the Company is required to apply the amendments (1) retrospectively to all business combinations for which the acquisition date occurs on or after the beginning of the fiscal year that includes the interim period of early application and (2) prospectively to all business combinations that occur on or after the date of initial application. The amendments in ASU 2021-08 should be applied prospectively to business combinations occurring on or after the effective date of the amendments. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of this standard on its Consolidated Financial Statements.
In March 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-04, Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Facilitation of the Effects of Reference Rate Reform on Financial Reporting (ASU 2020-04) which provides for temporary optional expedients and exceptions to the current guidance on certain contract modifications and hedging relationships to ease the burdens related to the expected market transition from the London Inter-bank Offered Rate (LIBOR) or other reference rates to alternative reference rates. In January 2021, the FASB issued ASU No. 2021-01, Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848) (ASU 2021-01) to clarify that certain optional expedients and exceptions apply to modifications of derivative contracts and certain hedging relationships affected by changes in the interest rates used for discounting cash flows, computing variation margin settlements, and for calculating price alignment interest. ASU 2020-04 was effective beginning on March 12, 2020 and may be applied prospectively to such transactions through December 31, 2022 and ASU 2021-01 was effective beginning on January 7, 2021 and may be applied retrospectively or prospectively to such transactions through December 31, 2022. The Company will evaluate transactions or contract modifications occurring as a result of reference rate reform and determine whether to apply the optional guidance on an ongoing basis. As of September 30, 2021, there was no impact to the Company’s Consolidated Financial Statements related to ASU 2020-04 or ASU 2021-01.