Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Revenue Recognition

Revenue Recognition
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2019
Revenue from Contract with Customer [Abstract]  
Revenue Recognition Revenue Recognition
The Company has two operating segments for which it recognizes revenue; Clinical Services and Pharma Services. The Clinical Services segment provides various clinical testing services to community-based pathology practices, hospital pathology labs and academic centers with reimbursement from various payers including client direct billing, commercial insurance, Medicare and other government payers, and patients. The Pharma Services segment supports pharmaceutical firms in their drug development programs by providing testing services and data analytics for clinical trials and research
Clinical Services Revenue
The Company’s specialized diagnostic services are performed based on a written test requisition form or electronic equivalent. The performance obligation is satisfied and revenues are recognized once the diagnostic services have been performed and the results have been delivered to the ordering physician. These diagnostic services are billed to various payers, including client direct billing, commercial insurance, Medicare and other government payers, and patients. Revenue is recorded for all payers based on the amount expected to be collected, which considers implicit price concessions. Implicit price concessions represent differences between amounts billed and the estimated consideration the Company expects to receive based on negotiated discounts, historical collection experience and other anticipated adjustments, including anticipated payer denials. Collection of consideration the Company expects to receive typically occurs within 30 to 60 days of billing for commercial insurance, Medicare and other governmental and self-pay payers and within 60 to 90 days of billing for client payers.
Pharma Services Revenue
The Company’s Pharma Services segment generally enters into contracts with pharmaceutical customers as well as other Contract Research Organizations (“CROs”) to provide research and clinical trial services ranging in duration from one month to several years. The Company records revenue on a unit-of-service basis based on number of units completed and the total expected contract value. The total expected contract value is estimated based on historical experience of total contracted units compared to realized units as well as known factors on a specific contract-by-contract basis. Certain contracts include upfront fees, final settlement amounts or billing milestones that may not align with the completion of performance obligations. The value of these upfront fees or final settlement amounts is usually recognized over time based on the number of units completed, which aligns with the progress of the Company towards fulfilling its obligations under the contract.
The Company also enters into other contracts, such as validation studies, for which the sole deliverable is a final report that is sent to sponsors at the completion of contracted activities. For these contracts, revenue is recognized at a point in time upon delivery of the final report to the sponsor. Any contracts that contain multiple performance obligations and include both units-of-service and point-in-time deliverables are accounted for as separate performance obligations and revenue is recognized as previously disclosed. The Company negotiates billing schedules and payment terms on a contract-by-contract basis. While the contract terms generally provide for payments based on a unit-of-service arrangement, the billing schedules, payment terms and related cash payments may not align with the performance of services and, as such, may not correspond to revenue recognized in any given period.
Amounts collected in advance of services being provided are deferred as contract liabilities on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. The associated revenue is recognized and the contract liability is reduced as the contracted services are subsequently performed. Contract assets are established for revenue that has been recognized but not yet billed. These contract assets are reduced once the customer is invoiced and a corresponding receivable is recorded. Additionally, certain costs to obtain contracts, primarily for sales commissions, are capitalized when incurred and are amortized over the term of the contract. Amounts capitalized for contracts with an initial contract term of twelve months or less are classified as current assets. All others are classified as non-current assets.
Most contracts are terminable by the customer, either immediately or according to advance notice terms specified within the contracts. All contracts require payment of fees to the Company for services rendered through the date of termination and may require payment for subsequent services necessary to conclude the study or close out the contract.

The following table summarizes the values of contract assets, capitalized commissions and contract liabilities as of December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018 (in thousands):
December 31, 2019 December 31, 2018
Current pharma contract assets (1)
$ 1,000    $ 86   
Long-term pharma contract assets (2)
153    268   
Total pharma contract assets $ 1,153    $ 354   
Current pharma capitalized commissions (1)
$ 133    $ 271   
Long-term pharma capitalized commissions (2)
798    650   
Total pharma capitalized commissions $ 931    $ 921   
Current pharma contract liabilities $ 1,610    $ 927   
Long-term pharma contract liabilities (3)
1,171    1,652   
Total pharma contract liabilities $ 2,781    $ 2,579   

(1) Current pharma contract assets and current pharma capitalized commissions are classified as “Other current assets” on the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
(2) Long-term pharma contract assets and long-term pharma capitalized commissions are classified as “Other assets” on the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
(3) Long-term pharma contract liabilities are classified as “Other long-term liabilities” on the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
The increases in the contract assets for the period ended December 31, 2019 as compared to the balances at December 31, 2018 are driven by increases in the volume of Pharma contracts nearing completion. Total Pharma contract liabilities increased $0.2 million, or 8%, from December 31, 2018 while capitalized commissions were flat year-over-year. Revenue recognized for the year ended December 31, 2019 related to Pharma contract liabilities outstanding at the beginning of the period was $2.2 million. Amortization of capitalized commissions for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018 were $1.2 million and $1.0 million, respectively.
During the year ended December 31, 2019, we signed approximately $102 million in net new contracts bringing the total amount of signed contracts at year-end to $130.3 million, substantially all of which contain cancellation provisions. The Company applied the practical expedient and does not disclose information about remaining performance obligations that have original expected durations of one year or less. The unsatisfied existing performance obligations under long-term contracts as defined by ASC 606 differs from backlog in that these obligations do not include wholly unperformed contracts where the promised consideration is variable and/or the application of other practical expedients.

Disaggregation of Revenue

The Company considered various factors for both its Clinical Services and Pharma Services segments in determining appropriate levels of homogeneous data for its disaggregation of revenue, including the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows. For Clinical Services, the categories identified align with our type of customer due to similarities of billing method, level of reimbursement and timing of cash receipts. Unbilled amounts are accrued and allocated to payor categories based on historical experience. In future periods, actual billings by payor category may differ from accrued amounts. Pharma Services revenue was not further disaggregated as substantially all of our revenue relates to contracts with large pharmaceutical and biotech customers as well as other CROs for which the nature, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows is similar and primarily driven by individual contract terms.
The following table details the disaggregation of revenue for both the Clinical and Pharma Services Segments (in thousands):
December 31, 2019 December 31, 2018 December 31, 2017
Clinical Services:
    Client direct billing $ 212,703    $ 164,888    $ 147,726   
    Commercial Insurance 83,107    40,360    35,473   
    Medicare and Medicaid 64,745    35,566    29,493   
    Self-Pay 606    1,059    405   
Total Clinical Services 361,161    241,873    213,097   
Pharma Services: 47,669    34,868    27,154   
Total Revenue $ 408,830    $ 276,741    $ 240,251