Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2017
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Note B – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Use of Estimates

The Company prepares its consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. These principles require management to make estimates, judgments and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, together with amounts disclosed in the related notes to the consolidated financial statements. Actual results and outcomes may differ from management’s estimates, judgments and assumptions. Significant estimates, judgments and assumptions used in these consolidated financial statements include, but are not limited to, those related to revenues, accounts receivable and related allowances, contingencies, useful lives and recovery of long-term assets and intangible assets, income taxes and valuation allowances, stock-based compensation and impairment analysis of goodwill. These estimates, judgments, and assumptions are reviewed periodically and the effects of material revisions in estimates are reflected in the consolidated financial statements prospectively from the date of the change in estimate.

Revenue Recognition

Clinical Services

The Company recognizes revenues when (a) the price is fixed or determinable, (b) persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, (c) the service is performed and (d) collectability of the resulting receivable is reasonably assured. The Company’s specialized diagnostic services are performed based on a written test requisition form or electronic equivalent and revenues are recognized once the diagnostic services have been performed, and the results have been delivered to the ordering physician. These diagnostic services are billed to various payers, including Medicare, commercial insurance companies, other directly billed healthcare institutions such as hospitals and clinics, and individuals. The Company reports revenues from contracted payers, including Medicare, certain insurance companies and certain healthcare institutions, based on the contractual rate, or in the case of Medicare, published fee schedules. The Company reports revenues from non-contracted payers, including certain insurance companies and individuals, based on the amount expected to be collected. The difference between the amount billed and the amount estimated to be collected from non-contracted payers is recorded as a contractual allowance to arrive at the reported net revenues. The expected revenues from non-contracted payers are based on the historical collection experience of each payer or payer group, as appropriate. The Company records revenues from patient pay tests net of a large discount and as a result recognizes minimal revenue on those tests. The Company regularly reviews its historical collection experience for non-contracted payers and adjusts its expected revenues for current and subsequent periods accordingly.

Pharma Services

The Company’s Pharma Services Division generally enters into contracts with pharmaceutical and biotech customers as well as other CROs to provide Research and Clinical Trial services ranging in duration from one month to several years.  The contract terms generally provide for payments based on a unit-of-service arrangement.  Revenue on these arrangements is recognized when there is persuasive evidence of an arrangement, the service offering has been delivered to the customer, the arrangement consideration is determinable and the collection of the fees is reasonably assured.  The Company recognizes revenue in the period in which the unit is completed.  Service unit elements largely consist of analytical testing services and related project support activities.


Most contracts are terminable by the customer, either immediately or according to advance notice terms specified within the contracts.  All contracts require payment of fees to the Company for services rendered through the date of termination and may require payment for subsequent services necessary to conclude the study or close out the contract.  Final settlement amounts are agreed upon with the customer and included in Service revenue when realization is reasonably assured.




The table below shows the adjustments made to gross service revenue to arrive at net revenues, the amount reported on our statement of operations (in thousands):




For the Years ended December 31,




2017 (1)








Gross service revenues













Total contractual adjustments and discounts













Net service revenues














(1) In 2017, NeoGenomics lowered its’ patient fee schedule; which led to the reduction in gross service revenues.  The fee schedule reduction had a minimal impact on net service revenues.  

Cost of Revenue

Cost of revenue includes payroll and payroll related costs for performing tests, depreciation of laboratory equipment, rent for laboratory facilities, laboratory reagents, probes and supplies, and delivery and courier costs relating to the transportation of specimens to be tested.

Shipping Costs

The Company has a significant expense related to shipping specimens to our facility for testing and this cost is for contract couriers, commercial airline flights and charges from FedEx to ship specimens to our facility. We also incur expenses returning samples and slides to our clients.  We had approximately $10.8 million, $10.3 million and $3.6 million in outsourced shipping expenses for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively, and these costs were included in our cost of revenue.

Advertising Costs

Advertising costs are expensed at the time they are incurred and are not material for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015.

Research and Development

Research and development (“R&D”) costs are expensed as incurred. R&D expenses consist of cash and equity compensation and benefits for R&D personnel, amortization of intangibles, supplies, inventory and payment for samples to complete validation studies. These expenses are incurred to develop new genetic tests.

Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts

Accounts receivable are comprised of amounts due from sales of the Company’s specialized diagnostic services and are recorded at the billed amount, net of discounts and contractual allowances. The allowance for doubtful accounts is estimated based on the aging of accounts receivable with each payer category and the historical data on bad debts in these aging categories. In addition, the allowance is adjusted periodically for other relevant factors, including regularly assessing the state of our billing operations in order to identify issues which may impact the collectability of receivables or allowance estimates. Revisions to the allowance are recorded as an adjustment to bad debt expense within general and administrative expenses. After appropriate collection efforts have been exhausted, specific receivables deemed to be uncollectible are charged against the allowance in the period they are deemed uncollectible. Recoveries of receivables previously written-off are recorded as credits to the allowance. Our estimates of net revenue are subject to change based on the contractual status and payment policies of the third party payers with whom we deal. We regularly refine our estimates in order to make our estimated revenue as accurate as possible based on our most recent collection experience with each third party payer.

Changes in the allowance for doubtful accounts are as follows (in thousands):




Years Ended December 31,












Beginning balance – allowance for doubtful accounts













Provision for doubtful accounts


























Ending balance – allowance for doubtful accounts














Foreign Currency


The functional currency for our subsidiary outside of the U.S. is the applicable local currency.  We translate the financial statements of the subsidiary into U.S. dollars using average monthly exchange rates.  Translation gains and losses are recorded in accumulated other comprehensive income (“AOCI”) as a component of stockholders' equity.

Statements of Cash Flows

For purposes of the consolidated statements of cash flows, we consider all highly liquid investments purchased with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents.

Fair Value of Financial Instruments

The carrying value of cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable, accrued expenses and other liabilities, and other current assets and liabilities, including our revolving credit facility are considered reasonable estimates of their respective fair values due to their short-term nature. The Company maintains its cash and cash equivalents with domestic financial institutions that the Company believes to be of high credit standing. The Company believes that, as of December 31, 2017, its concentration of credit risk related to cash and cash equivalents was not significant. The carrying value of the Company’s long-term capital lease obligations and term debt approximates its fair value based on the current market conditions for similar instruments.  The Company entered into an interest rate swap agreement in December of 2016, see Note G- Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities.  At December 31, 2017, the fair value of the derivative financial instrument was $352,000, which was included in the balance sheet as other assets and reflected in AOCI.  At December 31, 2016, the fair value of the derivative financial instrument was not considered to be significant and therefore, was not recorded on the balance sheet nor was the change in value reflected through AOCI.    

Fair value is defined as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. Valuation techniques used to measure fair value must maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs. A fair value hierarchy has been established based on three levels of inputs, of which the first two are considered observable and the last unobservable.


Level 1: Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.  These are typically obtained from real-time quotes for transactions in active exchange markets involving identical assets.

Level 2: Inputs, other than quoted prices included within Level 1, which are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly.  These are typically obtained from readily-available pricing sources for comparable instruments.

Level 3: Unobservable inputs, where there is little or no market activity for the asset or liability.  These inputs reflect the reporting entity’s own assumptions of the data that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability, based on the best information available in the circumstances.

Concentrations of Credit Risk

Concentrations of credit risk with respect to revenue and accounts receivable are primarily limited to certain clients and geographies to which the Company provides a significant volume of its services, and to specific payers of our services such as Medicare and individual insurance companies. The Company’s client base consists of a large number of geographically dispersed clients diversified across various customer types. For the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, no clients accounted for more than 5% of revenue.  Due to the acquisition of Clarient, our concentration of revenue shifted from Florida to California.  For the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, revenue derived from the State of California accounted for 21.1%, 24.0% and 20.2%, respectively, of total revenue.  For the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, revenue derived from the State of Florida accounted for 13.9%, 15.0% and 20.5%, respectively, of total revenue.


Inventories, which consist principally of testing supplies, are valued at the lower of cost or market, using the first-in, first-out method (FIFO).

Other Current Assets

As of December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, other current assets consist primarily of prepaid expenses relating to contracts for laboratory and computer equipment maintenance.

Property and Equipment

Property and equipment are recorded at cost, net of accumulated depreciation and amortization. Property and equipment generally includes purchases of items with a cost greater than $1,000 and a useful life greater than one year. Depreciation and amortization are computed on the straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the assets. Leasehold improvements and property and equipment under capital leases are amortized over the shorter of the related lease terms or their estimated useful lives. Costs incurred in connection with the development of internal-use software are capitalized in accordance with the accounting standard for internal-use software, and are amortized over the expected useful life of the software, generally 3-5 years.  We perform a fair value assessment on property and equipment acquired in a business combination and record the fair value as the cost basis for those assets.

The Company periodically reviews the estimated useful lives of property and equipment. Changes to the estimated useful lives are recorded prospectively from the date of the change. Upon retirement or sale, the cost of the assets disposed of and the related accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts and any resulting gain or loss is included in income (loss) from operations. Repairs and maintenance costs are expensed as incurred.

Intangible Assets

Intangible assets with finite useful lives are recorded at fair value or cost, less accumulated amortization. At December 31, 2017, we had two classes of assets, each class is amortized over its estimated service period using the straight-line method. We periodically review the estimated pattern in which the economic benefits will be consumed and adjust the amortization period and pattern to match our estimate.

At December 31, 2017, the Company’s intangible assets were related to customer relationships acquired through the acquisition of Clarient as well as customer relationships and a non-compete agreement related to the purchase of a customer list.    


The Company evaluates goodwill on an annual basis in the fourth quarter or more frequently if management believes indicators of impairment exist. Such indicators could include, but are not limited to (1) a significant adverse change in legal factors or in business climate, (2) unanticipated competition, or (3) an adverse action or assessment by a regulator. The Company first assesses qualitative factors to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, including goodwill. If management concludes that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, management conducts a two-step quantitative goodwill impairment test. The first step of the impairment test involves comparing the fair value of the applicable reporting unit with its carrying value. The Company estimates the fair values of its reporting units using a combination of the income, or discounted cash flows, approach and the market approach, which utilizes comparable companies’ data. If the carrying amount of a reporting unit exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value, management performs the second step of the goodwill impairment test. The second step of the goodwill impairment test involves comparing the implied fair value of the affected reporting unit’s goodwill with the carrying value of that goodwill. The amount, by which the carrying value of the goodwill exceeds its implied fair value, if any, is recognized as an impairment loss. The Company’s evaluation of goodwill completed during the fourth quarter resulted in no impairment losses.

Recoverability and Impairment of Long-Lived Assets

The Company reviews the recoverability of its long-lived assets (property and equipment, and intangible assets) if events or changes in circumstances indicate the assets may be impaired. Evaluation of possible impairment is based on the Company’s ability to recover the asset from the expected future pretax cash flows (undiscounted and without interest charges) of the related operations. If the expected undiscounted pretax cash flows are less than the carrying amount of such asset, an impairment loss is recognized for the difference between the estimated fair value and carrying amount of the asset.  No impairment losses were recognized in the years ended December 31, 2017 or 2015.  The Company recognized approximately $3.5 million in impairment losses for the year ended December 31, 2016.  See Note P for further details.  

Debt Issuance Costs

We record debt issuance costs related to our debt liabilities as direct deductions from the carrying amount of the debt.  The costs are amortized to interest expense over the life of the debt using the effective interest method.  

Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities

The Company uses derivative instruments to manage risks related to interest expense.  We account for derivatives in accordance with Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) ASC Topic 815, which establishes accounting and reporting standards requiring that derivative instruments be recorded on the balance sheet as either an asset or liability and measured at fair value.  Additionally, changes in the derivative's fair value will be recognized currently in earnings unless specific hedge accounting criteria are met.  


In December of 2016, the Company entered into an interest rate swap agreement.  The interest rate swap agreement effectively converts a portion of the Companies floating rate debt to a fixed rate, thereby reducing the impact on future changes in interest rates.


In accordance with ASC 815, the Company has designated the interest rate swap as a cash flow hedge.  As the specific terms and notional amounts of the derivative financial instrument match those of the floating rate debt being hedged, the derivative instrument is assumed to be a perfectly effective hedge and, accordingly, there is no impact to the Company's consolidated statements of operations. At December 31, 2017, the fair value of the derivative financial instrument was $352,000, which was included in the balance sheet as other assets and reflected in AOCI. At December 31, 2016, it was determined that the fair value of this instrument was not significant and, therefore, is not recorded on the balance sheet as an asset/liability nor is the change in value reflected through AOCI.  The instrument will be evaluated on a monthly basis and resulting increases/decreases will be recorded as a component of AOCI and reclassified to the consolidated statement of operations as interest is paid. Cash flows from the interest rate swap are to be included in operating activities on the consolidated statement of cash flows.


For further information on derivative instruments and hedging activities, see Note G to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.   

Series A Redeemable Convertible Preferred Stock

The Company has classified the Series A Redeemable Convertible Preferred Stock (“Series A Preferred Stock”) as temporary equity on the consolidated balance sheet due to certain deemed liquidation events that are outside the Company’s control.  These events include the following:


Acquisition of 50% or more of the voting securities of the Company;


Consolidation, merger or corporate reorganization in which the stockholders of the Company immediately prior to such consolidation, merger or reorganization own less than 50% of the voting power immediately after the consolidation, merger or reorganization;


Sale, lease, license, transferor disposition of all or substantially all of the assets, technology or intellectual property of the Company.

We evaluated our Series A Preferred Stock upon issuance in order to determine classification as to permanent or temporary equity and whether or not the instrument contains an embedded derivative that requires bifurcation. This analysis followed the whole instrument approach which compares an individual feature against the entire instrument which includes that feature. This analysis was based on a consideration of the economic characteristics and risk of the Series A Preferred Stock.

We evaluated all of the stated and implied substantive terms and features, including: (i) redemption (Purchase Call Option) on the Series A Preferred Stock allowing the Company to redeem the Series A Preferred Stock at any time, (ii) required redemption contingent if we raise capital, (iii) required redemption in the event of certain deemed liquidation events (in essence, any change in control of the Company), (iv) conversion (Written Call Option) on the underlying shares if after three years the stock trades at $8.00 for thirty trading days, and (v) conversion (Contingent Forward) on the underlying shares automatically at the ten year anniversary of the issue date.  

As a result of this analysis, we concluded that the Series A Preferred Stock represented an equity host and, therefore, the redemption feature of the Series A Preferred Stock was not considered to be clearly and closely related to the associated equity host instrument.  However, the redemption features did not meet the net settlement criteria of a derivative and, therefore, were not considered embedded derivatives that required bifurcation.

We also concluded that the conversion rights under the Series A Preferred Stock were clearly and closely related to the equity host instrument.  Accordingly, the conversion rights features on the Series A Preferred Stock were not considered an embedded derivative that required bifurcation.

Beneficial Conversion Feature

The issuance of the Company's Series A Preferred Stock generated a beneficial conversion feature, which arises when a debt or equity security is issued with an embedded conversion option that is beneficial to the investor or in the money at inception because the conversion option has an effective strike price that is less than the market price of the underlying stock at the commitment date. We recognized this beneficial conversion feature by allocating the intrinsic value of the conversion option, which is the number of shares of common stock available upon conversion multiplied by the difference between the effective conversion price per share and the fair value of common stock per share on the commitment date, to additional paid-in capital, resulting in a discount on the Series A Preferred Stock. NeoGenomics is accreting the discount from the date of issuance through the earliest conversion date, which is three years.  Accretion expense is recognized as dividend equivalents over the three year period.  Upon redemption of any shares of preferred stock by the Company prior to any beneficial conversion feature being realized by the holder, the amount of beneficial conversion related to the number of shares redeemed that was accreted as dividends would be reversed, and the entire amount of beneficial conversion feature recorded in accumulated additional paid-in-capital would be reversed.  

Income Taxes

We compute income taxes in accordance with ASC Topic 740, Income Taxes. Under ASC Topic 740, deferred taxes are recognized for the tax consequences of temporary differences by applying enacted statutory rates applicable to future years to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts and the tax bases of existing assets and liabilities. Also, the effect on deferred taxes of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that included the enactment date. Temporary differences between financial and tax reporting arise primarily from the use of different depreciation methods and lives for property and equipment and recognition of bad debts and various other expenses that have been allowed for or accrued for financial statement purposes but are not currently deductible for income tax purposes.

The provision for income taxes, including the effective tax rate and analysis of potential tax exposure items, if any, requires significant judgment and expertise in federal and state income tax laws, regulations and strategies, including the determination of deferred tax assets and liabilities and any estimated valuation allowances deemed necessary to recognize deferred tax assets at an amount that is more likely than not to be realized. We evaluate tax positions that have been taken or are expected to be taken in our tax returns, and record a liability for uncertain tax positions, if deemed necessary. We follow a two-step approach to recognizing and measuring uncertain tax positions. First, tax positions are recognized if the weight of available evidence indicates that it is more likely than not that the position will be sustained upon examination, including resolution of related appeals or litigation processes, if any. Second, the tax position is measured as the largest amount of tax benefit that has a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon settlement. We recognize interest and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits in the provision for income taxes in the accompanying consolidated financial statements. During the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, we do not believe we had any significant uncertain tax positions, nor did we have any provision for interest or penalties related to such positions.

Stock-Based Compensation

We measure compensation expense for stock-based awards to employees, non-employee contracted physicians, and directors based upon the awards’ initial grant-date fair value.  The estimated grant-date fair value of the award is recognized as expense over the requisite service period using the straight-line method. The fair value of awards to non-employees are then marked-to-market each reporting period until vesting criteria are met.  

We estimate the fair value of stock options and warrants using a trinomial lattice model. This model is affected by our stock price on the date of the grant as well as assumptions regarding a number of highly complex and subjective variables. These variables include the expected term of the option, expected risk-free rates of return, the expected volatility of our common stock, and expected dividend yield, each of which is more fully described below. The assumptions for expected term and expected volatility are the two assumptions that significantly affect the grant date fair value.

Expected Term: The expected term of an option is the period of time that the option is expected to be outstanding. The average expected term is determined using a trinomial lattice simulation model.

Risk-free Interest Rate: We base the risk-free interest rate used in the trinomial lattice valuation method on the implied yield at the grant date of the U.S. Treasury zero-coupon issue with an equivalent term to the stock-based award being valued. Where the expected term of a stock-based award does not correspond with the term for which a zero coupon interest rate is quoted, we use the nearest interest rate from the available maturities.

Expected Stock Price Volatility: We use our own historical weekly volatility because that is more reflective of market conditions.

Dividend Yield: Because we have never paid a dividend and do not expect to begin doing so in the foreseeable future, we have assumed a 0% dividend yield in valuing our stock-based awards.

Tax Effects of Stock-Based Compensation

We will only recognize a tax benefit from windfall tax deductions for stock-based awards in additional paid-in capital if an incremental tax benefit is realized after all other tax attributes currently available have been utilized.

Net Income (Loss) per Common Share

We have adopted the two class method of calculating earnings (loss) per share, due to the issuance of the Series A Preferred Stock in December 2015.  Under this method, when we have a net loss we will not allocate the net loss to the holders of the Series A Preferred Stock (our participating shareholders) as they do not have a contractual obligation to share in losses.  Under this method, when we have net income, we will compute net income per share using the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the applicable period plus the weighted average number of preferred shares outstanding during the period.  

Diluted net income per share is computed using the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the applicable period, plus the dilutive effect of potential common stock. Potential common stock consists of shares issuable pursuant to stock options and warrants. Calculations of net income per share are done using the treasury stock method.

Comprehensive Income

We have presented a separate statement of other comprehensive income which includes net income, foreign currency translation adjustments and deferred gains related to derivative financial instruments. Changes in the components of AOCI are presented in the consolidated statements of redeemable convertible preferred stock and stockholders’ equity.    

Recently Adopted and Issued Accounting Guidance


In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-01, Business Combinations.  This standard clarifies the definition of a business and provides guidance on when transactions should be accounted for as acquisitions of assets and when they should be accounted for as acquisitions of businesses.  The Company early adopted this standard on July 1, 2017 and applied this guidance to the customer list that was acquired on August 1, 2017.  The customer list acquired was not determined to meet the definition of a business under this standard and was therefore determined to be an asset acquisition.  


In March 2016, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2016-09, Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting. The standard update required excess tax benefits and tax deficiencies to be recorded directly through earnings as a component of income tax expense. Under previous GAAP, these differences were generally recorded in additional paid-in capital and thus had no impact on net income. The change impacted the computation of diluted earnings per share, and the cash flows associated with those items are now classified as operating activities on the condensed statements of consolidated cash flows.  Entities were permitted to make an accounting policy election for the impact of forfeitures on the recognition of expense for share-based payment awards. Forfeitures could be estimated, as required under previous GAAP, or recognized when they occur.  


The Company adopted this ASU on January 1, 2017 using the transition method prescribed for each applicable provision:


Based on the implementation guidance, previously unrecognized excess tax benefits should be on a modified retrospective basis beginning in the period the guidance is adopted.  Accordingly, the Company recorded an increase in deferred tax assets and an offsetting cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings of $6.4 million as of January 1, 2017 for excess tax benefits not previously recognized.


Based on the implementation guidance, all excess tax benefits and tax deficiencies related to share based compensation will be reported in net income (loss) on a prospective basis.  For the year ended December 31, 2017, $0 in income (loss) was reported.  


The Company has elected to retrospectively adopt the requirement to present cash flows related to excess tax benefits as cash flows from operating activities.  This adoption had no effect on cash flows for the year ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015.


The Company has elected to recognize forfeitures in compensation cost as they occur.



In August 2017 the FASB issued ASU 2017-12, Derivatives and Hedging.  This standard refines hedge accounting to better align an entity’s risk management activities and financial reporting for hedging relationships through changes to both the designation and measurement guidance for qualifying hedging relationships and the presentation of hedge results.   This update is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018 and interim periods within those annual periods.  Early adoption is permitted.  The Company does not expect the adoption of ASU 2017-12 to have a material effect on its consolidated financial statements.  


In May 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-09, Compensation – Stock Compensation.  This standard provides guidance related to the scope of stock option modification accounting, to reduce diversity in practice and reduce cost and complexity regarding existing guidance. This update is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017.  Early adoption is permitted. The Company does not expect the adoption of ASU 2017-09 to have a material effect on its consolidated financial statements.  


In January 2017 the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-04, Intangibles – Goodwill and Other:  Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment.  This standard eliminates Step 2 of the goodwill impairment test. Instead, an entity should perform its annual or interim goodwill impairment test by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount. An entity should recognize an impairment charge for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value; however, the loss recognized should not exceed the total amount of goodwill allocated to that reporting unit. This update is effective for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2019.  Early adoption is permitted for interim or annual goodwill impairment tests performed after January 1, 2017.  The Company does not expect the adoption of ASU 2017-04 to have a material effect on its consolidated financial statements.  

In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-15, Statement of Cash Flows – Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments.  The update clarifies how specific cash receipts and cash payments are classified and presented in the statement of cash flows. This update is effective for fiscal years and interim periods within those fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017.  Early adoption is permitted.  The Company does not expect the adoption of ASU 2016-15 have a material effect on its consolidated financial statements.  

In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases.  The update was issued to increase transparency and comparability among organizations by recognizing lease assets and lease liabilities, including for operating leases, on the balance sheet and disclosing key information about leasing arrangements. ASU 2016-02 is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2018.  The adoption of this ASU will result in an increase on the balance sheet for lease liabilities and right to use assets.  The Company is currently evaluating the quantitative impact that adopting ASU 2016-02 will have on its consolidated financial statements and assessing any changes to its processes and controls.


In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-09, which amends FASB Accounting Standards Codification by creating Topic 606, Revenues from Contracts with Customers.  This standard update calls for a number of revisions in the revenue recognition rules. In August 2015, the FASB deferred the effective date of this ASU to the first quarter of 2018, with early adoption permitted beginning in the first quarter of 2017.  The ASU can be applied using a full retrospective method or a modified retrospective method of adoption.  The Company has adopted this ASU on January 1, 2018 using a full retrospective method of adoption.  Under this method, the Company will restate its results for each prior reporting period presented as if ASC 606 had been effective for those periods.


The adoption of this standard will require us to implement new revenue policies, procedures and internal controls related to revenue recognition.  In addition, the adoption will result in enhanced financial statement disclosures surrounding the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from contracts with customers.  The new standard impacts each of our two reportable segments differently due to the transactional nature of the Clinical Services Division versus the generally long-term nature of our Pharma Services Division contracts.  The specific effect on our reportable segments is explained below:

Clinical Testing Revenue

Under the new standard, substantially all of our bad debt expense, which has historically been presented as part of general and administrative expense, is considered an implicit price concession and will be reported as a reduction in revenue.  As a result of the new standard, there will be a material cumulative reduction in clinical revenue from previously reported periods and a similar reduction in general and administrative expenses.

Pharma Testing Revenue

The adoption of the new standard may result in changes to the timing of revenue recognition related to Pharma Services contracts as individual deliverables, for which revenue was previously recognized in the period when the deliverables were completed and invoiced, will be recognized over the remaining performance period under the new standard. Additionally, certain costs to obtain contracts, primarily for sales commissions, will be capitalized when incurred and will be amortized over the term of the contract. Under ASC 606, the Company is required to make estimates of the net sales price, including estimates of variable consideration, and recognize the estimated amount as revenue when it transfers control of the product or performance obligations to its customers.  The estimation of variable consideration and the application of the related constraint, was not required under previous GAAP, variable consideration must now be determined using either an expected value or most likely amount method which requires the use of significant management judgment and estimates.   The cumulative effect of this standard is not expected to result in a material change to our Pharma Services revenue.